Network Layer Reviews

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

understanding dhcp Understanding DHCP

An IP tackle may be outlined as a singular numeric identifier (tackle) that’s assigned to every pc working in a TCP/IP based mostly community. Manually configuring computer systems with IP addresses and different TCP/IP configuration parameters just isn’t an intricate activity. Nevertheless, manually configuring hundreds of workstations with distinctive IP addresses can be a time consuming, and cumbersome expertise. Once you manually assign IP addresses, you improve the danger of duplicating IP handle assignments, configuring the incorrectsubnet masks, and incorrectly configuring different TCP/IP configuration parameters.

That is the place the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) turns into necessary. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a service that does the above talked about duties for directors, thereby saving simplifying the administration of IP addressing in TCP/IP based mostly networks. TCP/IP configuration was principally a guide course of earlier than the DHCP protocol was launched. One of many most important disadvantages of manually assigning IP addresses to lots of of computer systems is that it might end result within the assigned IP addresses not being distinctive. In a TCP/IP based mostly community, to uniquely determine computer systems on the community, every pc should have a singular IP tackle. To speak on the Web and personal TCP/IP community, all hosts outlined on the community should have IP addresses. The 32-bit IP tackle identifies a specific host on the community.

You need to solely use guide handle task beneath these circumstances:

  • When there are not any configured DHCP servers on the community and the community haves a number of community segments.
  • If you end up configuring a pc as a DHCP server, you assign that pc a static IP handle.
  • Once you configure computer systems as essential community servers comparable to area controllers, or DNS servers; you manually assign the IP tackle to those computer systems.

DHCP features on the software layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack. One of many main duties of the protocol is to mechanically assign IP addresses to DHCP shoppers. A server operating the DHCP service known as a DHCP server. The DHCP protocol automates the configuration of TCP/IP shoppers as a result of IP addressing happens by means of the system. You’ll be able to configure a server as a DHCP server in order that the DHCP server can routinely assign IP addresses to DHCP shoppers, and with no guide intervention. IP addresses which might be assigned by way of a DHCP server are considered dynamically assigned IP addresses. The DHCP server assigns IP addresses from a predetermined IP tackle vary(s), referred to as a scope.

The features of the DHCP server are outlined under:

  • Dynamically assign IP addresses to DHCP shoppers.
  • Allocate the next TCP/IP configuration info to DHCP shoppers:
    • Subnet masks info.
    • Default gateway IP addresses.
    • Area Identify System (DNS) IP addresses.
    • Home windows Web Naming Service (WINS) IP addresses.

You’ll be able to improve the supply of DHCP servers through the use of the 80/20 Rule in case you have two DHCP servers situated on totally different subnets.

The 80/20 Rule is utilized as follows:

  • Allocate 80 % of the IP addresses to the DHCP server which resides on the native subnet.
  • Allocate 20 % of the IP addresses to the DHCP Server on the distant subnet.

If the DHCP server that’s allotted with 80 % of the IP addresses has a failure, the distant DHCP server would resume assigning the DHCP shoppers with IP addresses.

As a result of the DHCP service is an important service in a TCP/IP based mostly community, the next implementations are strongly really helpful.

  • Small networks ought to have no less than one DHCP server.
  • Giant networks ought to have a number of implementations of DHCP servers. This implementation configuration allows the next advantages:
    • Fault tolerance is offered.
    • The tackle area could be cut up.

The framework for the DHCP protocol is outlined in RFC 2131. The DHCP protocol stems from the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) protocol. BOOTP allows shoppers in addition up from the community as an alternative of booting up from the onerous drive. The DHCP server has a predefined pool of IP addresses, from which it allocates IP addresses to DHCP shoppers. Through the boot course of, DHCP shoppers request IP addresses, and acquire leases for IP addresses from the DHCP server.

When the DHCP shopper boots on the community, a negotiation course of referred to as the DHCP lease course of happens between the DHCP server and shopper. The negotiation course of includes of 4 messages, despatched between the DHCP server and the DHCP shopper.

  • Two messages from the shopper.
  • Two messages from the DHCP server.

DHCP Messages

The DHCP protocol consists of eight discrete message varieties:

DHCP Message Description
DHCP Uncover UDP broadcast from DHCP shopper to find obtainable servers.
DHCP Supply DHCP server to shopper in response to DHCP Uncover with supply of configuration parameters.
DHCP Request Shopper response to servers both requesting provided parameters from one server and implicitly declining provides from all others, confirming correctness of beforehand allotted tackle after, e.g. system reboot, or extending the lease on a specific community handle.
DHCP ACK Server to shopper with configuration parameters, together with dedicated community tackle.
DHCP NAK Server to shopper indicating shopper’s notion of community handle is wrong (e.g. shopper has moved to new subnet) or shopper’s lease has expired.
DHCP Decline Error message from DHCP shopper to server indicating community tackle is already in use.
DHCP Launch Message from DHCP shopper to server releasing community tackle and canceling remaining lease.
DHCP Inform Shopper asking DHCP server just for native configuration parameters as a result of the shopper already has externally configured community handle.

DHCP scopes

A scope may be outlined as a set of IP addresses which the DHCP server can allocate or assign to DHCP shoppers.  A scope incorporates particular configuration info for shoppers which have IP addresses that are inside the specific scope. Scope info for every DHCP server is restricted to that specific DHCP server solely, and isn’t shared
between DHCP servers. Scopes for DHCP servers are configured by directors.

A DHCP has to have no less than one scope, which incorporates the next properties.

  • The required vary of IP addresses that are going to be leased to DHCP shoppers.
  • The subnet masks.
  • The DHCP scope choices (DNS IP addresses, WINS IP addresses).
  • The lease period. The default of eight days is appropriate for small networks.
  • Any reservations. Reservations embrace parts akin to a shopper all the time receiving the identical IP addresses and TCP/IP
    configuration info when it begins.

Subsequently, whenever you begin designing your DHCP technique, and you’re defining the scopes on your DHCP servers, you must make clear the next.

  • The beginning and finish addresses which might outline the vary of addresses you need to make the most of.
  • The subnet masks of the actual subnet.
  • The period of time that the lease ought to be for the IP addresses leased out of your scopes.
  • All different TCP/IP configuration info which you need assigned to DHCP shoppers.
  • Decide these IP addresses that you simply need to reserve for shoppers.
  • Decide whether or not any shoppers utilizing statically assigned IP addresses must be excluded from the handle
    pool.

In case you have a number of scopes, keep in mind that shoppers can solely get hold of IP addresses from the subnet to which they belong. Shoppers can’t acquire IP addresses from scopes which are related with totally different subnets. Nevertheless, in case your shoppers ought to be capable of acquire IP addresses from different scopes, you’ll be able to configure a superscope.

A superscope is the grouping of scopes beneath one administrative entity that permits shoppers to acquire IP addresses, and renew IP addresses from any scope that’s a part of the superscope.

Superscopes are sometimes created for underneath the next circumstances:

  • The prevailing scope.s IP addresses provide is being depleted.
  • You need to use two DHCP servers on the identical subnet. That is often for offering redundancy.
  • You have to transfer shoppers from one vary of IP addresses to a unique vary of IP addresses.

The DHCP Lease Course of

The DHCP lease course of, also referred to as the DHCP negotiation course of, is a reasonably simple course of.

The DHCP lease course of is described under:

  1. The DHCP Uncover message is shipped from the shopper to the DHCP server. That is the message used to request an IP handle lease fro a DHCP server. The message is shipped when the shopper boots up. The DHCP Uncover message is a broadcast packet that’s despatched over the community, requesting for a DHCP server to answer it.
  2. The DHCP servers which have a legitimate vary of IP addresses, sends a suggestion message to the shopper. The DHCP Supply message is the response that the DHCP server sends to the shopper. The DHCP Supply message informs the shopper that the DHCP server has an obtainable IP tackle. The DHCP Supply message consists of the next info:
    • IP tackle of the DHCP server which is providing the IP tackle.
    • MAC tackle of the shopper.
    • Subnet masks.
    • Size of the lease.
  3. The shopper sends the DHCP server a DHCP Request message. This message signifies that the shopper accepted the supply from the primary DHCP server which responded to it. It additionally signifies that the shopper is requesting the actual IP handle for lease. The shopper broadcasts the acceptance message so that each one different DHCP servers who provided addresses
    can withdraw these addresses. The message accommodates the IP tackle of the DHCP server which it has chosen.
  4. The DHCP server sends the shopper a DHCP Acknowledge message. The DHCP Acknowledge message is definitely the method of assigning the IP tackle lease to the shopper.

Understanding DHCP and DNS Integration

Area Identify System (DNS) is the primary identify decision technique used to offer shoppers with identify to IP handle decision. This in flip allows shoppers to find assets on the community.
The Dynamic DNS (DDNS) function, initially launched in Home windows 2000, allows shoppers to routinely register their IP addresses and host names with a DNS server. When the DHCP service is operating on a server, the DHCP server register the IP handle of shoppers in DNS when the shoppers obtain IP addresses from the DHCP server. The shopper not contacts the DDNS server to register its IP addresses as a result of the Home windows Server 2003 DHCP service dynamically updates the DNS data on behalf the shopper.

With Home windows Server 2003 DHCP, three choices can be found for registering IP addresses in DNS. The choices could be configured for the DHCP server, or for every particular person scope.

The choices which might be specified to allow/disable the DHCP service to dynamically replace DNS data on behalf of the shopper are:

  • The DHCP server may be configured to not register any IP tackle of the DHCP shoppers when it assigns IP addresses to those shoppers.
  • The DHCP server may be configured to always register all IP handle of shoppers once they obtain IP addresses from the DHCP server.
  • The default choice leads to the DHCP server registering the IP addresses of shoppers with the authoritative DNS server, based mostly on the shopper.s request for an IP handle.

The Benefits of utilizing DHCP

The most important benefits of utilizing DHCP are summarized under:

  • DHCP is included with fashionable server packages: To implement DHCP requires no further prices.
  • Centralized, easier administration of IP addressing: You’ll be able to handle IP addressing from a central location.
  • DHCP additionally offers for the straightforward deployment of different configuration choices, akin to default gateway and DNS suffix.
  • As a result of the system assigns IP addresses, it results in much less incorrect configurations of IP addresses. That is primarily because of IP configuration info being entered at one location, and the server distributing this info to shoppers.
  • Duplicated IP addresses are prevented.
  • IP addresses are additionally preserved. DHCP servers solely allocate IP addresses to shoppers once they request them.
  • The DHCP service can assign IP addresses to each particular person hosts, and multicast teams.
    Multicast teams are used when communication happens with server clusters.
  • DHCP service helps clustering. This lets you arrange excessive availability DHCP servers.
  • In Home windows Server, DHCP integrates with Dynamic DNS (DDNS). This facilitates dynamic IP tackle administration as a result of the DHCP server registers the shopper pc.s Tackle (A) data and pointer (PTR) data within the DNS database when the shopper obtains an IP handle. That is made potential by way of DHCP integration with Dynamic DNS
    (DDNS).
  • You’ll be able to monitor the pool of obtainable IP addresses, and in addition be notified when the IP tackle pool reaches a sure
    threshold.
  • By way of authorizing DHCP servers in Lively Listing, you’ll be able to prohibit your DHCP servers to solely these which are
    approved. Lively Listing additionally permits you to specify these shoppers that the DHCP server can allocate addresses
    to.
  • Dynamic IP addressing via DHCP simply scales from small to giant networking environments.

The Disadvantages of utilizing DHCP

The foremost disadvantages of utilizing DHCP are summarized under:

  • The DHCP server is usually a single level of failure in networking environments that solely have one DHCP server.
  • In case your community has a number of segments, you need to carry out both of the next further configurations:
    • Place a DHCP server on every phase
    • Place a DHCP relay agent on every phase
    • Configure routers to ahead Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) broadcasts.
  • All incorrectly outlined configuration info will routinely be propagated to your DHCP shoppers.

Designing a DHCP Technique

To ensure that DHCP to function efficiently, your whole shopper computer systems ought to be capable of contact the DHCP server, and make contact with it at any time. DHCP depends on the community topology, and is in flip relied on by all TCP/IP based mostly hosts inside your networking setting.

The elements that ought to be included or decided, once you design a DHCP technique and decide the location of the DHCP servers are listed under:

  • Decide the community topology.
  • Decide the variety of hosts in your community.
  • Decide the variety of subnets that DHCP will probably be supporting
  • Decide the situation of your routers.
  • Decide the transmission velocity between your community segments.
  • Decide whether or not Dynamic DNS (DDNS) can be used.
  • Decide the variety of shoppers that DHCP will probably be allocating IP addresses to.
  • Decide the situation of those shoppers.
  • Determine these shoppers, if any, which might probably not be capable of use DHCP for IP addresses allocation.
  • Determine shoppers which shall be utilizing BOOTP.
  • Determine the WAN hyperlinks which might probably trigger a failure that would forestall shoppers from accessing the DHCP
    server.
  • Outline the devoted or reserved IP addresses that must be excluded from the DHCP tackle pool vary.

The essential design necessities related to DHCP are:

  • It is strongly recommended to implement a minimum of two DHCP servers to offer redundancy. Having two totally different DHCP servers ensures a extremely obtainable DHCP infrastructure as a result of it might forestall points which come up when community hyperlink failure happens.
  • In case your community has a number of segments, it’s a must to carry out both of the next:
    • Place a DHCP server on every phase.
    • Place a DHCP relay agent on every phase.
    • Configure your routers to ahead Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) broadcasts.

The failover strategies which you need to think about implementing whenever you design a DHCP implementation are:

  • Deploy a standby DHCP server: On this failover technique, the standby DHCP server is configured with the identical scope of the first DHCP server. The standby DHCP server is simply introduced on-line when the first DHC server has a failure.
  • Deploy a clustered server: Implementing a clustered server offers failover capabilities.
  • Cut up the scopes: You possibly can cut up the scopes of your DHCP servers when they’re positioned on totally different subnets.
    This offers failover when the DHCP server has a failure, or when a subnet fails. When splitting the scopes, keep in mind that you do not want to separate the scopes in equal proportions. It is strongly recommended to put a bigger portion of the scope on the DHCP server that really serves the native subnet.

Figuring out the variety of DHCP servers and placement

The variety of DHCP servers you would wish to implement is decided by the next elements:

  • Community topology.
  • Server hardware would affect the variety of DHCP shoppers which the DHCP server can be able to servicing.
    Server hardware additionally impacts the efficiency of your DHCP servers.
  • Community configuration.
  • Routing configuration.
  • Availability necessities of the DHCP servers.
  • The variety of shoppers which the DHCP servers are going to service.

In a routed community, you would wish DHCP relay brokers in case you plan to implement just one DHCP server. It is suggested to put the DHCP server on the subnet that has nearly all of hosts.

DHCP server necessities

In case you are implementing just one DHCP server, you must undoubtedly check that the DHCP server is able to dealing with the shopper load. When deciding on which server to make use of to run the DHCP service, keep in mind that the efficiency of the server influences the efficiency of the DHCP service.

The efficiency of a server might be enhanced when the server has:

  • A number of CPUs.
  • A number of community playing cards.
  • Excessive efficiency arduous drives.

In case you are implementing a number of DHCP servers, place DHCP servers on all subnets that are related by way of sluggish, unstable WAN hyperlinks. This in flip prevents DHCP messages from being transmitted over the WAN.

Enabling DHCP help for non Microsoft DHCP shoppers

For networks which have solely Microsoft shopper computer systems, establishing your DHCP shoppers is a reasonably straightforward activity. The kind of shoppers which you need your DHCP server to service might result in further DHCP design and DHCP configuration necessities.

The several types of shoppers are:

  • Non Microsoft DHCP shoppers: These shoppers may have help for sure DHCP options. Non Microsoft DHCP shoppers don’t essentially help vendor extensions.
  • Non DHCP Shoppers: Shoppers that don’t help DHCP should be manually assigned with IP addresses.
  • BOOTP Shoppers: These are shoppers that don’t help IP leases. BOOTP shoppers request IP addresses each time
    they begin.

DHCP Safety Issues

The features which it’s worthwhile to resolve to safe your DHCP surroundings are:

  • As a result of the IP tackle quantity in a scope is restricted, an unauthorized consumer might provoke a denial-of-service (DoS) assault by requesting/acquiring a big numbers of IP addresses.
  • An unauthorized consumer might use a rogue DHCP server to supply incorrect IP addresses to your DHCP shoppers.
  • A denial-of-service (DoS) assault can by launched via an unauthorized consumer that performs numerous DNS
    dynamic updates by way of the DHCP server.
  • Assigning DNS IP addresses and WINS IP addresses by means of the DHCP server will increase the potential for an unauthorized consumer utilizing this info to assault your DNS and WINS servers.

To safe your DHCP surroundings, use the next methods:

  • Implement firewalls.
  • Shut all open unused ports.
  • If mandatory, use VPN tunnels.
  • You should use MAC handle filters.
  • Use 128-bit Wired Equal Privateness (WEP) encryption in wi-fi networks.
  • Disable broadcasting the Service Set IDentifier (SSID) in wi-fi networks.

DHCP Design Greatest Practices

The perfect practices for designing a DHCP setting are summarized under:

  • Plan your DHCP implementation technique. You need to determine all bodily and logical subnets, and every router
    between your totally different subnets.
  • In case your routers might be configured to ahead DHCP broadcasts, apply this configuration. You might want to add a DHCP
    relay agent in case your routers can’t be configured to ahead DHCP broadcasts.
  • It is strongly recommended to configure a DHCP server for measurement as follows:
    • 10, 0000 or much less shoppers for which to offer providers.
    • 1, 000 or much less scopes.
  • Enhance the efficiency of your DHCP. This may be completed through the use of the next:
    • Excessive efficiency arduous drives.
    • Hardware RAID disk controller.
  • The DHCP service shouldn’t be operating on a website controller if it will replace DNS data for legacy shoppers. It is best to place your DHCP servers and area controllers on separate computer systems.
  • Splitting the tackle vary between two DHCP servers offers fault tolerance.
  • Apply the 80/20 rule when you’re creating scopes.
  • All area controllers must be upgraded if crucial earlier than you deploy your DHCP
    servers.
  • In case you have two DHCP servers, and you’re utilizing reservations for shoppers; create the reservations on every DHCP
    server. This may allow a shopper to acquire its IP handle from both of the DHCP servers.
  • If attainable use the next DHCP particular options:
    • Safe Updates: This forces a pc to be authenticated in Lively Listing earlier than it could actually get hold of an IP handle
      from a DHCP server.
    • Dynamic DNS (DDNS) providers: The DHCP server can register IP addresses in DNS on behalf of shoppers.
    • DHCP authorization

Further Studying on DHCP

The DHCP protocol is outlined in RFC 2131: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

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